de Toeni of Normandy and Flamstead, Hertfordshire, England
Hugh de Cavalcamp [a] b abt 890, prob Eure, France.
Child of Hugh de Cavalcamp was:

Ralph I de Toeni [b] b abt 925, of Tosni, Eure, France.
Child of Ralph I de Toeni was:

Ralph II de Toeni [c], Seigneur of Tosni and Conches, b abt 965, Tosni, Eure, France, d abt 1015. The identity of his wife is not known.
Children of Ralph II de Toeni were:
  • Ralph de Toeni, d young.
  • Roger I de Toeni b abt 992. See LINE A
  • (poss.) Robert de Toeni b abt 996. See LINE B
LINE A
Roger I de Toeni [d], Standard Bearer of Normandy, aka "de Conches", b abt 992, Conches, Normandy, d 31 May 1039. He md Godeheut abt 1022, daughter of Raymond III Borrel, Count of Barcelona, and Ermesende of Carcassonne.
Children of Roger I de Toeni and Godeheut were:
Sir Ralph III de Toeni [e], Lord of Flamstead, aka "de Conches", b abt 1034, of Flamstead, Hertfordshire, England, d 24 Mar 1101/02. He md Isabel/Elizabeth de Montfort abt 1070, France, daughter of Simon I de Montfort, Seigneur of Montfort l'Amauri, and Isabel de Bardoul.
Children of Ralph III de Toeni and Isabel/Elizabeth de Montfort were:
  • Roger II de Toeni b abt 1074, d 15 May 1091.
  • Ralph IV de Toeni b abt 1078.
  • Godeheut de Toeni b abt 1082; md Baldwin I of Boulogne, King of Jerusalem.
Sir Ralph IV de Toeni [f], Lord of Flamstead, aka "de Conches", b abt 1078, Flamstead, Hertfordshire, England, d abt 1126. He md Alice of Northumberland 1103, daughter of Sir Waltheof II of Huntingdon, Earl of Huntingdon and Northampton, Count of Lens, and Judith of Lens.
Children of Ralph de Toeni and Alice of Huntingdon were:
  • Sir Roger III de Toeni b abt 1104.
  • Robert de Toeni b abt 1108.
  • Margaret de Toeni b abt 1112, Flamstead, Hertfordshire, England, d 1185. She md Sir Walter Fitz Richard de Clifford, Lord of Clifford, abt 1135, son of Richard Fitz Pons and Maud Fitz Walter.
Sir Roger III de Toeni [g], Lord of Flamstead, aka "de Conches", b abt 1104, of Flamstead, Hertfordshire, England, d 1157-62. He md Ida of Hainault abt 1130, daughter of Baldwin III, Count of Hainault, and Yolande of Guelders.
Children of Roger III de Toeni and Ida/Gertrude of Hainault were:
  • Ralph V de Toeni, Seigneur, b abt 1132.
  • Godeheut de Toeni b abt 1140, of Flamstead, Hertfordshire, England, d bef 1186. She md William de Mohun abt 1155, son of Sir William de Mohun, Earl of Somerset, and Agnes de Gant.
Sir Ralph V de Toeni [h], Lord of Flamstead, aka "de Conches", b abt 1132, Flamstead, Hertfordshire, England, d 1162. He md Margaret de Beaumont aft 1155, Flamstead, Hertfordshire, England, daughter of Sir Robert de Beaumont, Knight, Earl of Leicester, Justiciar of England, and Amice de Montfort.
Children of Ralph V de Toeni and Margaret de Beaumont were:
  • Ida de Toeni [i] b abt 1158, of Flamstead, Hertfordshire, England. She md Sir Roger Bigod, Earl of Norfolk, Magna Carta Surety, abt 1181, son of Sir Hugh Bigod, Earl of Norfolk, and Juliana de Vere. She was also previously a mistress of Henry II Curtmantle, King of England, son of Geoffrey V of Anjou, Count of Anjou, and Matilda of Germany.
  • Sir Roger IV de Toeni b abt 1160.
Sir Roger IV de Toeni [j], Lord of Flamstead, Knight, aka "de Conches", b abt 1160, Flamstead, Hertfordshire, England, d 29 Dec 1208, Flamstead, Hertfordshire, England. He md Constance de Beaumont abt 1185, daughter of Richard I de Beaumont, Viscount of Maine, and Daughter de l'Aigle.
Child of Roger IV de Toeni and Constance de Beaumont was:

Sir Ralph VI de Toeni [k], Lord of Flamstead, b abt 1189/90, Flamstead, Hertfordshire, England, d abt 29 Sep 1239 (at sea). He md Petronilla de Lacy Nov 1234, daughter of Sir Walter de Lacy, Lord of Meath and Weobley, and Margaret/Margery de Braose.
Children of Ralph de Toeni and Petronilla de Lacy were:

  • Sir Roger V de Toeni, Lord of Flamstead, b abt 1235.
  • Constance de Toeni b abt 1236, Radnor, Wales, d aft Feb 1266. She md Fulk Fitz Warin abt 1249, son of Fulk Fitz Warin and Maud le Vavasour.
Sir Roger V de Toeni [l], Lord of Flamstead, b Sep 1235, of Flamstead, Hertfordshire, England, d bef 12 May 1264. He md [1] Alice de Bohun bef 1255, daughter of Sir Humphrey V de Bohun, Earl of Hereford and Essex, and Maud d'Eu; and [2] Isabel aft 1255.
Child of Roger de Toeni and Alice de Bohun was:

Sir Ralph VII de Toeni [m], Lord of Flamstead, b 1255, of Flamstead, Hertfordshire, England, d bef 29 Jul 1295, Gascony, France. He md Mary abt 1280. She was b abt 1258, prob Scotland.
Child of Ralph VII de Toeni and Mary was:

Alice de Toeni [n] b abt 1283, of Flamstead, Hertfordshire, England, d bef 8 Jan 1324/25. She md:

    [1] Thomas de Leyburne,
    [2] Sir Guy de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, Knight, 12 Feb 1309/10, son of Sir William de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, and Maud Fitz John, and
    [3] Sir William la Zouche de Mortimer, Lord Zouche of Mortimer, bef 25 Feb 1316/17, son of Robert de Mortimer and Joyce la Zouche.

LINE B
(poss) Robert de Toeni b abt 996, prob Conches, Normandy.
  • Sir Robert de Toeni, Lord of Belvoir, b abt 1042. He md Adeliza abt 1062. She was b abt 1046.
    Child of Robert de Toeni and Adeliza was:

    Adelize/Alice de Toeni b abt 1066, d aft 1136. She md Roger Bigod abt 1082.


    NOTES:
    This name is seen as de Conches, de Tony, de Toni, de Tosni, etc, but it's derivation is almost certainly from Tosni, in Eure, France. Several members held Conches, also in Eure, hence the nickname "de Conches".

    a. Virtually nothing is known of Hugh de Cavalcamp except that he had two sons, Hugh, and Ralph (or Rodolf). Son Hugh was a monk at the abbey of St. Denis and in 942 he was made Archbishop of Rouen by William "Longsword", Duke of Normandy. From the estates of this Achbishopric, Hugh gave to his brother, Ralph, the domain of Tosni.

    b. Described as "a most powerful man", he is often confused with his son of the same name, but the dates involved indicate there must have been two Ralphs, belonging to successive generations.

    c. Born probably before 970, as in 1013-14, the Duke of Normandy, having founded the castle of Tillieres, gave custody of it to Ralph and his son Roger. Around 1015 he went to Apulia, and in the winter of 1015-16, he was at the seige of Salerno. While record of his wife's name has not survived, Orderic, in writing of Ralph's son, Roger, stated that he descended from an alleged uncle of Rolf/Rollo, founder of Normandy, so some believe it possible that Ralph's wife may have belonged to a ducal branch of that house. Ralph II de Toeni had at least two sons, Ralph and Roger, and may have also had a son, Robert de Toeni, who is known to have had a brother, Berenger "Spina", as well as a sister Bertha, who married Guy de Laval circa 1025. Some sources identify this Robert de Toeni as a predecessor of the later Robert de Toeni, Lord of Belvoir in 1086.

    d. Styled also de Conches, he was a powerful man and banner-bearer of all Normandy. About 1035 he founded the abbey of Chatillon or Conches, and while Duke Robert was away on pilgrimage, he went to Spain where he distinguished himself fighting "the infidels". When he returned to Normandy and found that William had succeeded his father, Duke Robert, Roger was furious that a bastard ought not to rule over him and other Normans. And accordingly, Robert rebelled and ravaged the lands of his neighbors, particularly those of Humphrey de Vieielles, whose son, Roger de Beaumont then marched against him. In the battle that followed, Roger de Toeni and two of his sons, supposedly named Elbert and Elinant, were slain. He left at least three sons and a daughter, Ralph, who succeeded him, Robert de Stafford, Gazon, and Alice, who married William Fitz Osbern, Earl of Hereford.

    e. Commonly styled de Conches, in about 1060, he, Hugh de Grandmesnil, and Ernald d'Echauffour, were deprived of their inheritances by the Duke, and then banished. In revenge, Ralph and Ernauld made raids into Normandy, burning the town of St. Evroul. But by 1063, they were recalled and their lands restored. He took part in the invasion of England and fought at the Battle of Hastings, and sometime between the battle and the Domesday survey of 1086, the Conqueror gave him estates in the counties of Berks, Essex, Gloucester, Hereford, Herts, Norfolk, and Worcester. After returning from pilgrimage to Spain in 1080, he made gifts to the abbey of St. Evroul in recompense for having burned the town. In 1088 he served under Duke Robert in the war against Maine. Shortly after, he was engaged in a personal war, his wife Isabel having angered her sister-in-law, Hawise (wife of Isabel's brother, William, Count of Evreux), by which Hawise induced her husband to attack Ralph. When Ralph was unable to obtain aid from Duke Robert, he sent envoys to William Rufus, who then ordered his adherents in Normandy to go to Ralph's aid. In Nov the Count of Evreux besieged Conches, but was defeated, and after three years of fighting peace was concluded. When Rufus and his brother made peace in 1091, the Duke granted to the King all lands of Gerard de Gournay and Ralph de Conches, after which Ralph remained one of the King's strongest supporters. After Rufus' death, Ralph and his prior rival, the Count of Evreux, invaded the Count of Meulan's barony of Beaumont in Aug 1100, in revenge for his having prejudiced the late King against them. Ralph was benefactor to the abbeys of St. Evroul, l'Estree, Conches, Croix-Saint-Leufroi, Lire, Jumieges, Bec, and St. Taurin. His wife Isabel, after a long widowhood, "repenting of the fatal wantonness to which she had been much addicted in her youth", took the veil.

    f. Second, but first surviving son and heir, he succeeded his father about 1102. He crossed to England, and being graciously received by the King, obtained his father's lands, and in 1104 returned to Normandy with Henry, as one of his most ardent supporters. He was in the King's army in Normandy in 1106 and took part in the battle of Tinchebrai on 28 Sep. When rebellion broke out in Normandy in 1119, he remained faithful to Henry and was with him in 1120 at Rouen. He was benefactor to the abbeys of Bec and Conches. He married Alice, younger daughter and coheir of Waltheof, Earl of Northampton, Northumberland, and Huntingdon. After Ralph's death, his widow gave the church of Walthamstow to Holy Trinity, London.

    g. He succeeded his father about 1126, and in 1135 the King suspected he was preparing to rebel, together with William Talvas, on behalf of Henry's son-in-law, Geoffrey Plantagenet, and sent his soldiers to garrison the castle of Conches. After the King's death, Roger supported Geoffrey and his wife, the Empress Maud, against Stephen. Hostilities began between Roger and the King's generals, the twins Waleran, Count of Meulan, and Robert (de Beaumont), Earl of Leicester, after Easter 1136, and civil war raged in May and Jun. But hostilities flared again in the autumn, and on 3 Oct Roger was ambushed and captured, and his land was laid under interdict and he was kept in prison for more than 6 months, finally being released in 1137. In May the following year, he was again attacked by the Count of Meulan, but successfully defended himself and on 7 Sep he captured Breteuil and burned that town. But before the end of that year, he made peace with the twin Earls and was reconciled with King Stephen. In 1150 or 1151 he was with Henry, Duke of Normandy, at Rouen, and after Henry became King, Roger enjoyed his royal favor. He was benefactor to the abbeys of Noe, Conches, and Bec.

    h. He was with the Duke of Normandy, afterwards Henry II, at Le Lierru in the Forest of Conches in 1154, and after Henry had ascended the throne, he was with him at Bonneville-sur-Touques, 1156-62. His widow had Walthamstow in Essex in dower, and also held land at Pont-St. Pierre and other places in Normandy. She was still living in 1185 when she was said to be 60 years of age.

    i. Long known as simply Ida, she was a mistress of King Henry II, who later married Earl Roger Bigod. In a medieval document, William de Longespee (son of Henry II) mentions his mother "Countess Ida" which lead to educated speculation that she could only be Ida wife of Sir Roger Bigod, Earl of Norfolk. In a recently published book, "The Bigod Earls of Norfolk in the Thirteenth Century (by Marc Morris, Boydell, 2005) are shown sources which document that Ida was indeed Ida de Toeni. She is now believed to be the daughter of Sir Ralph de Toeni and his wife, Margaret de Beaumont. For information on this subject, see the thread Additional sources for Ida de Tosny on the soc.genealogy.medieval newslist.

    j. A small boy at his father's death, he was a faithful adherent to King Richard I, and accompanied him to Jerusalem, reaching Acre about 8 Jun 1191. On 7 Sep he distinguished himself in Richard's victory at Arsuf, and was with the King at Joppa in Jan 1191/92, and in Jun he fought in the battle when Richard captured the Saracen convoy. At Mich. 1196, he owed 40 s. for his scutage for the King's ransom, 40 s. for the 2nd scutage for the army of Normandy and 40 s. for the 3rd scutage for the army of Normandy after the King's return from Germany. After Richard's death, he continued to enjoy royal favor under King John, who in 1199 granted him the manor of Saham in Norfolk. Roger then recovered his castle of Conches, but in 1203 the King of France recaptured his castle of Tosni, and in 1204 Roger finally lost all his lands in Normandy, being one of those excluded by King Philip from the terms of pacification. But in England, he continued to enjoy royal favor. In Mar 1204, the King granted him land at St. Botulf, and in Nov 30 librates of land in Norfolk and 30 librates of land in Devon, and in Dec 1205, Walter de Clifford was ordered to restore the castle of Boskeret to Roger. He was living 29 Dec 1208, but died shortly afterwards, probably in Jan 1208/09. His wife, Constance, daughter of Richard de Beaumont, hereditary viscount of Maine, brought her husband in free marriage the manor of South Tawton in Devon. She seems to have possessed considerable influence and to have enjoyed the favor of King John, although the King of France confiscated all of her Norman lands. She was living overseas in 1226.

    k. In 1204, with his father and brother, he was excluded by the King of France from the terms of the pacification in Normandy. In Nov 1213, King John ordered that the manors of Saham and Ryhcot be restored to him. Presumably he supported King John in the civil war, as in Apr 1216, that King granted him the lands which had been held by Richard de Montfitchet, in Essex, Bucks, Cambridge, Norfolk, Suffolk and Hunts. But soon afterwards, Ralph must have joined the rebellious barons, for John ordered in Jul that Robert de Mortimer be given siezin of the land of Abberley, held by Ralph, and on 5 Sep following, the King gave the manor of Flamstead to Waleran Tyes. Upon Henry III's accession to the throne, Ralph was granted the manor of Newport, Essex Jun 1218, and in Sep 1233 he was given the custody of Maud Castle in radnor. Later that year he and John de Monmouth were appointed generals of the oitevin mercenaries in the Welsh marches against the Earl of Pembroke and Llewelyn. In 1239, he took the Cross and set out for the Holy Land. He married, between Nov 1232 and 1234, Pernel, daughter of Walter de Lacy. He died at sea, and his widow married bef 15 Oct 1256, William de St. Omer. She was still living 25 Nov 1288.

    l. His marriage and custody of his lands were granted to Queen Eleanor during his minority, and he did homage therefor between 1 and 15 Oct 1256, being then of full age. He was summoned to join the Earl of Hereford in defence of the Welsh marches in Jul and had gone to Wales with Edward, the King's son before 22 Oct 1257. He had protection in Apr 1260 for crossing with the Queen overseas, and in Jul 1262 was summoned to be a Hereford in Feb 1262/63 for action against Llewelyn. He was still living in Jun 1263, but was deceased before the battle of Lewes 14 May 1264. Complete Peerage gives his wife as Isabel, she being shown as mother of his heir, although mentions in a footnote that his first marriage was to Alice de Bohun, the contract of marriage being confirmed by the King 30 Jun 1239, when Roger was aged three years. Ancestral Roots cite documentation that Alice was the mother of of his two known children.

    m. His marriage and custody of his lands were granted respectively to the Earl of Hereford and Essex and to Edmund, the King's son 12 May 1264, but both were subsequently granted to Richard de Brus 8 Aug 1265. He had protection and was going to the March on the King's affairs in Nov 1276, and was summoned for service in Wales 1277, 1282, 1283, and 1287. He was summoned for service in Gascony in 1294, and was taken prisoner at Risonces 31 Mar 1295 and sent to Paris. He died, presumably as a prisoner before 29 Jul 1295 in France.

    n. Upon the death of her brother, Robert, s.p., shortly before 28 Nov 1309, she was found to be his heir, being aged 24 to 27 years, and widow of Thomas de Leyburn, at the time. She later married, secondly, Guy de Beauchamp, and thirdly, William la Zouche of Mortimer, and had issue by all three husbands.

    SOURCES:
    CP: Vol V[495], Vol VI[448], Vol XII/1[753-774]; AR: Line 98[27-31], Line 98A[24-27], Line 143[26]; MCS: Line 155[1], Line 157[2].

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